Sunday, August 30, 2009

Swollen Face 38 Weeks Pregnant

Reversing Anxiety and Phobias Addiction to the Imagination

Covert conditioning techniques

Model Strategies and Cognitive Behavioral Therapies

usually identified on clinical work Cognitive Restructuring Cognitive with proposed by Aaron Beck and carried out with techniques such as discussion and testing of automatic thoughts or finding alternative solutions and rational. Undoubtedly, the latter is one of the most prominent developments in the approach.
However, there are many other procedures that can be described as "cognitive" as of right, such as training in problem solving, training in anxiety management, self-control of internal dialogue or self-instruction training .
We chose dedicate this small space to called "covert conditioning techniques" or "coverante control techniques" developed primarily by Joseph Caution.
is a set of intervention strategies with the same denominator, in fact, all of them apply the principles of classical learning and working with mental images and symbolic representations, called private events within this conceptual context.
Thus, the covert conditioning techniques are a kind of hinge between the behavioral and cognitive models: applying the principles of conditioning, field traditionally considered behavioral phenomena to symbolic representations to verbal and visual elements of the cognitive field.

describe below three of these procedures.

covert modeling
the patient is trained in the symbolic repetition of appropriate behavior by a model imagined.
Operationally, consists of three stages. In the first, the person imagines a different model of himself in age and sex running the target behavior. In the second, imagine a model similar to himself in age and sex. For Finally, the third stage, he imagines himself as his own model making difficult behavior you want to incorporate. Since learning of new habits takes place gradually, usually advised that in the initial stages display a management model, ie someone to run the behavior some mistakes, the situation facing difficulties and overcoming obstacles. Conversely, during later stages of training is suggested the display of a domain model, which shows suitable and safe for their performance.

For example, in animal phobias is customary to design a treatment combined techniques. In short, after applying a systematic desensitization "traditional" appeal to the covert modeling, which starts with images of a person other than herself that between hesitation and with some anxiety can get close and cherish, for example, a dog is here is a management model in the first phase of training. Later, the patient displayed a similar subject himself approaching the dog and stroke it with little or no anxiety, we see here the second phase of training and a domain model. The last point is to imagine yourself performing the same action or event, the third phase of training and a domain model.

covert sensitization consists
imagined repetitions of behavior-problem symbolic paired with aversive events.

The aim is to bring some degree of inhibition in potentially harmful behaviors that the patient does not wish, for example, drinking alcohol, smoking, compulsive overeating or sexual deviations such as pedophilia.
This procedure is a kind of systematic desensitization Conversely, since what is intended is that the individual experience degree of anxiety about these unwanted behaviors or pathological manner which inhibits the occurrence of events.

The technique is aimed at altering the symbolic representations or mediators of unwanted activity, thus, its effectiveness depends on the behavior holds such mediators, ie we are not facing an automatic behavior.
Generally, it is used in addiction to the last phase of treatment when the patient attempts to acquire self-control to the environments that can lead to relapse.
For example, who suffers from alcoholism leads him to imagine situations where people are drinking followed by others that he experienced as aversive, that they give disgust or dislike him a lot. Thus, it weakens the appetite to consume in contexts similar to those imagined.

covert positive reinforcement consists
mating behavior with a positive reinforcer imagined imagery for the purpose of such behavior increases the probability of occurrence.

As a first step, it trains the patient to imagine an enjoyable activity that will be used later as a positive reinforcer. Then set the matching symbolic asked to imagine executing the desired behavior and immediately after change in his mind the image reinforcing.
The whole exercise consists of several trials, will result in an increase in desired behavior previously issued less frequently. The technique is recommended to increase behaviors inhibited by anxiety, delayed by lack of motivation or absent in the repertoire of the subject, it is also suggested to modify dysfunctional attitudes, even as a means to improve self-concept.

For example, in the case of a patient who complains of test anxiety, it is usual to design a systematic desensitization with a hierarchy that gradually approaching the feared situation, so the person achieved to reduce their anxiety and may yield.

Now, if this procedure is combined with the Covert Positive Reinforcement , it is induced to imagine a situation highly pleasurable for her next to each item in the hierarchy. Thus, not only achieve the decrease of test anxiety, but also linking the situation with feelings of pleasure, that will help change the negative view of it.

In addition, covert conditioning procedures aim to change affective, cognitive and behavioral supporting the idea that our imagination is a resource highly potent in changing behavior in reality.

In fact, both the imagination and our thoughts in general are the mediators between our situations every day and our behavior, in this sense that modulate our emotional reactions and actions. Consequently, the effectiveness of the techniques mentioned is due in large part to its power to modify or restructure our cognitions.

By: Mr. Ariel Minici, José Rivadeneira Dahab and Ms. Carmela

anxiety phobia social anxiety social phobia anxiety esteem shyness anxiety fear fear public speaking skills blush blush assertive social disorder behavioral therapy psychological problems


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